Capacity Development

Process of actively strengthening the abilities of individuals, organizations and societies to make effective use of the resources, in order to achieve their own goals on a sustainable basis. The World Bank defines capacity as “the proven ability of key actors in a society to achieve socio-economic goals on their own”. This is demonstrated through the functional presence of a combination of most of the following factors: viable institutions and respective organizations; commitment and vision of leadership; financial and material resources; skilled human resources. (more at Wikipedia)

Community of Practice

A group of people who share a craft and/or a profession. The group can evolve naturally because of the members' common interest in a particular domain or area, or it can be created specifically with the goal of gaining knowledge related to their field. It is through the process of sharing information and experiences with the group that the members learn from each other, and have an opportunity to develop themselves personally and professionally (more at Wikipedia)


Broadly defined, interoperability is the ability of systems, units, or forces to provide services to and accept services from other systems, units, or forces and to use the services so exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together.  Applied to information technology, interoperability describes the ability to meaningfully exchange information among separately developed systems, where the separate systems are able to understand the format, meaning, and also the quality of the information being exchanged.  (more at Wikipedia)

Open Innovation

The systematic encouragement and exploration of a wide range of internal and external sources for innovative opportunities, the integration of this exploration with organizational capabilities and resources, and the exploitation of these opportunities through multiple channels. The central idea behind open innovation is that, in a world of widely distributed knowledge, one can presume that solutions to problems are within others, so organizations should harvest processes or inventions from others instead of relying on typical models of internal development. Therefore, open innovation encourages organizations to deeply collaborate externally with partners and share both risk and reward. This concept is also related to cumulative innovation, know-how trading, mass innovation and distributed innovation. (more at Wikipedia)

Reference Implementation

An implementation of a specification which serves as the standard, definitive form from which all other implementations are measured. Typically, robust reference implementations practically clarify the intent of the specification, are developed concurrently as the specification matures, and verify that the specification is implementable. (more at Wikipedia)

Sustainable Development

A mode of human development in which resource use aims to meet human needs while ensuring the sustainability of natural systems and the environment, so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come. A form of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (more at Wikipedia)